In summary, ProLensis™ exerts several favorable effects on the hormonal milieu, documented in the table below.Hormones % Change
- Testosterone (serum) +347%
- Luteinizing Hormone (serum) +169%
- Estrogen -35%
- Prolactin (serum) No change
Bulbine Natalensis displays anabolic and androgenic characteristics
Anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male Wistar rats
Yakubu, Musa T.; Afolayan, Anthony J.
Source: Pharmaceutical Biology (Formerly International Journal of Pharmacognosy), Volume 48, Number 5, May 2010 , pp. 568-576(9)
Aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker (Asphodelaceae) stem at 25, 50 and 100?mg/kg body weight was investigated for anabolic and androgenic effects in male Wistar rats. Sixty male rats were grouped into four (A-D) consisting of 15 each. Group A (control) was orally treated with 0.5?mL of distilled water for 14 days while groups B, C and D were treated like the control except they received 0.5 mL containing 25, 50, and 100?mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. All the doses of the extract increased (P <0.05) the testicular-body weight ratio as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, glycogen, sialic acid, protein, and cholesterol content of the testes except the single administration of 100?mg/kg body weight which compared well (P>0.05) with the controls for glycogen and cholesterol. The testicular and serum testosterone concentration were increased except in the 100?mg/kg body weight where the effect on the tissue and serum hormone did not manifest until after the first and seven daily doses respectively. Testicular acid phosphatase activity, serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone concentrations also increased at all the doses except in the 100?mg/kg body weight where the effect on the enzyme and the hormone did not manifest until after seven days. The increases were most pronounced in the 50?mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The results indicate anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male rat testes with the 50?mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the highest anabolizing and androgenic acti vities. These activities further support the folkloric use of the plant most especially at 50?mg/kg body weight in the management of male sexual dysfunction in South Africa.
Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem on the sexual behaviour of male rats.
Yakubu MT, Afolayan AJ.
Source: Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.
The phytochemical constituents of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem and its effect on male rat sexual behaviour were evaluated for 7 days. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinones. Administration of the extract at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight resulted in the significant increase (p < 0.05) in mount frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculatory latency, ejaculation frequency, serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, computed indices of sexual behaviour, erection, quick flips, long flips and total penile reflexes whereas the mount latency, intromission latency and post-ejaculatory interval were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) throughout the experimental period. The 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract produced contrasting pattern to the lower doses of the extract in all the parameters of sexual behaviour monitored throughout the experimental period. The results are indicative of prosexual stimulatory potentials of Bulbine natalensis in male rats. The aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis stem at these doses (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) may be used in the management of disorders of desire/libido, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males.
PMID: 18710410 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Physiological Aspects of Male Libido Enhanced by Standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Mineral Formulation. Steels E, Rao A, Vitetta L.
Applied Science and Nutrition Pty Ltd, Clinical Trials, PO Box 68, New Farm, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4005. email@example.com.
The aim of the clinical study was to evaluate the effect of Testofen, a standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, on male libido (sexual drive, urge or desire) in a double blind randomized placebo controlled study. The study recruited 60 healthy males aged between 25 and 52, without erectile dysfunction and randomized to an oral dose (two tablets per day) of the active treatment (600 mg Testofen per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the DISF-SR (male) self-administered QOL total score and the four domain scores. The secondary outcome was specific quality of life parameters. Testofen had an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in the subdomains of sexual arousal and orgasm. Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 21312304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Fenusterols© is the saponin rich fraction obtained from Fenugreek seeds. Saponins are complex glycosidic compounds present in a diverse array of edible and inedible plants1. Each saponin consists of a sapogenin which constitutes the aglycon moiety of the molecule, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar moiety may be glucose, galactose, pentose or a methylpentose.
Fenugreek seeds are a rich source of saponins (5-6%).
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, Family: Leguminosae) is an annual herbaceous plant, 30 to 60 cm in height. The herb is native to North Africa, as well as the countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean, and is widely cultivated in India. Traditionally, the seeds of Fenugreek have been used as a condiment in Indian homes. Fenugreek is an important cash crop in various parts of the world, with the herb being used as food, spice and medicine.
STEROIDAL SAPONINS FROM FENUGREEK
The presence of special steroidal substances in Fenugreek seeds was first reported in 1919 by Wunschendorff, a French research scientist working in Algeria. This discovery was confirmed in various follow-up studies notably by Marker et a, who detected the presence of diosgenin, gitogenin and traces of tigogenin after hydrolysis of the plant material.
Fenugreek seeds contain saponins in the form of furostanol saponins. Furostanol saponins may be defined as bidesmosidic saponins which have two sugar chains, with one bonded at C3 and one attached through an ether linkage at C26 with a D-glucose3. The general structure of a furostanol saponin is given below in
Fenugreek seeds have been found to contain at least a dozen different saponins3. The main saponin is diosgenin and its isomers yamogenin, gitogenin and tigogenin. The other furostanols include smilagenin, sarsasapogenin, neotigenin, yuccagenin, lilagenin and neogitogenin.
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE FUROSTANOL SAPONINS
1. Steroidal Saponins and Sports Medicine
In sports nutrition, the anabolic effects of the furostanol saponins could be potentially used to induce increase muscle mass and strength, with the consequent improvement in athletic performance. In a clinical study, a preparation rich in furostanol saponins was shown to possess immunostimulating and leutinizing hormone releasing properties. The furostanols preparation also increased testosterone levels and spermatogenesis. Testosterone is known to play a key role in sperm cell production and immune functions and is often used to increase fertility and recovery. From a sports nutrition point of view, furostanol saponins are particularly promising since increased testosterone levels increase the deposition of protein in the muscles, leading to increased muscle mass and strength.
2. Hypocholesterolemic effects
The seeds of fenugreek are known to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. In experiments conducted over the last decade, several groups of researchers demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effects of fenugreek resided in the fat-free fraction, more precisely, in the saponin-rich sub-fraction. Diosgenin, the primary furostanol saponin in fenugreek has been proven to have various effects on cholesterol metabolism, the most important being its capacity to lower plasma cholesterol concentration. This hypocholesterolemic effect appears to be dependent upon the capacity of diosgenin to inhibit cholesterol absorption, to decrease liver cholesterol concentration and to increase biliary cholesterol secretion and the fecal excretion of neutral sterols.
Urtica Dioica (Stinging Nettle)
Urtica Dioica inhibits the binding of Testosterone to Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), resulting in lower levels of “bound” Testosterone and higher levels of “free” Testosterone (this effect occurs as a result of Urtica Dioica binding to SHBG in place of Testosterone). Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) production increases in tanderm with the Aging Process – SHBG binds to Testosterone, inhibiting Testosterone’s normal biological functions, resulting in the reduced Sexual Desire associated with the Male Menopause: Testosterone binds more strongly to SHBG with the progression of the Aging Process. Assists with Enlarged Prostrate and helps to prevent Prostrate Cancer and is an effective treatment for existing Prostrate Cancer. Useful for Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Urtica Dioica (leaf) is useful for the treatment of Osteoarthritis (it reduces levels of Interleukin 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor, which are strongly implicated in the development and progression of Osteoarthritis when produced in excess). Urtica Dioica (leaf) is useful for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (it reduces levels of Interleukin 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor, which are strongly implicated in the development and progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis when produced in excess).
Urtica Dioica (root) is an effective adjunct to Saw Palmetto for the treatment of Enlarged Prostate:
- In one human study, a daily dosage of 240 mg of Urtica Dioica root combined with 320 mg of Saw Palmetto (for 12 weeks) caused a 26% increase in maximum urinary flow, a 29% increase in mean urinary flow, a 45% reduction in residual urine, a 50% reduction in Nocturia, a 62% reduction in Dysuria and a 53% decrease in post-void dribbling in Enlarged Prostate patients.
- Urtica Dioica inhibits the Aromatase and 5-Alpha Reductase enzymes that have been implicated in the development of Enlarged Prostate.
- Urtica Dioica inhibits the transformation of the benign Cells involved in Enlarged Prostate to the malignant Cells involved in Prostate Cancer. – Urtica Dioica inhibits the binding of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to Prostate cells (thereby preventing DHT from stimulating the proliferation of Prostate cells that leads to Enlarged Prostate).
- The Urtica dioica Agglutinin content of Urtica Dioica inhibits the ability of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) to bind to its Receptors in the Prostate and to subsequently stimulate the growth of Prostate tissue (a key underlying factor in the progression of Enlarged Prostate).
- A constituent of Urtica Dioica ((10-E, 12-Z)-9-hydroxy-10, 12-octadecadienic acid) inhibits the Aromatase Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Testosterone to Estradiol (a key underlying factor in the progression of Enlarged Prostate).
Urtica Dioica Enhances the Function of these Substances
Urtica Dioica inhibits the binding of Testosterone to Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), resulting in lower levels of “bound” Testosterone and higher levels of “free” Testosterone (this effect occurs as a result of Urtica Dioica binding to SHBG in place of Testosterone). Urtica Dioica Inhibits these Potentially Toxic Substances
Urtica Dioica inhibits the activity of 5-Alpha Reductase.
Urtica Dioica inhibits the activity of Aromatase.
The Urtica dioica Agglutinin content of Urtica Dioica inhibits the ability of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) to bind to its Receptors in the Prostate and to subsequently stimulate the growth of Prostate tissue (a key underlying factor in the progression of Enlarged Prostate).
Urtica Dioica inhibits the binding of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to Prostate cells.